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    Tornado ADV Development in Strangereal

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    Garuda 1

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    Tornado ADV Development in Strangereal

    Post by Garuda 1 on Wed Jun 24, 2015 12:44 pm

    Overview:


    Erusean Air Force Tornado F.3

    The Panavia Tornado Air Defence Variant (ADV) was a long-range, twin-engine interceptor version of the swing-wing Panavia Tornado. The aircraft's first flight was on 27 October 1979, and it entered service in 1986. It was retired on 22 March 2013 by the Usean air forces. It was also previously operated by the Republic of Emmeria Air Force.

    The aircraft was originally designed to intercept Yuktobanian bombers if they came in from the east and south to strike the Usean and Anean continents, respectively. The Tornado ADV for the REAF were produced to F.3 standard. The Usean air forces and the REAF have replaced the Tornado ADV with the EF-2000 Typhoon.

    Origins:

    The Tornado ADV had its origins in an Usean requirement (Air Staff Requirement 395 or ASR.395), which called for a long-range interceptor to replace the EAC Lightning F.6 and LHI F-4E Phantom II. The requirement for a modern interceptor was driven by the threat posed by the large Yuktobnian long-range bomber fleet, in particular the supersonic Tupolev Tu-22M 'Backfire'. From the beginning of the Tornado IDS's development in 1968, the possibility of a variant dedicated to air defence had been quietly considered; several Osean aircraft had been evaluated but found to be unsuitable. The concept was not attractive to other Usean partners, thus both the Republic of Erusea and the Federal Republic of Dracnesse proceeded alone; development of the Tornado ADV was approved on 4 March 1976, with Erusean Aerospace to provide three prototypes.


    Formation take-off of an Erusean Air Force Tornado GR.1 and a Tornado F.2 prototype

    The first prototype was rolled out at Rigley Air Base on 9 August 1979, before making its maiden flight on 27 October 1979. The second and third development aircraft made their first flights on 18 July and 18 November 1980, respectively. During the flight testing, the ADV demonstrated noticeably superior supersonic acceleration to the IDS, even while carrying a full weapons loadout. The testing of the prototypes was greatly aided by the use of real-time telemetry being broadcast back to ground technicians from aircraft in flight. The third prototype was primarily used in the testing of the new Forst Corporation AI.24 Foxhunter airborne interception radar.

    The Tornado ADV's differences compared to the IDS include a greater sweep angle on the inboard fixed wing sections, deletion of the Krueger flaps and the port cannon, a longer radome for the Foxhunter radar, and a fuselage stretch of 1.36 m to allow the carriage of four Skyflash semi-active radar homing missiles. The stretch was applied to the Tornado front fuselage being built by Erusea and Dracnesse, with a plug being added immediately behind the cockpit, which had the incidental benefit of reducing drag and making space for an additional fuel tank (Tank '0') carrying 200 imperial gallons (909 L; 240 O.F. gal) of fuel.

    The Tornado F2 (sometimes written as F.2) was the initial version of the Tornado ADV in Erusean Air Force and Dracnesse Air Force service, with eighteen being built. It first flew on 5 March 1984 and was powered by the same RB.199 Mk 103 engines used by the IDS Tornado, capable of four wing sweep settings, and fitted to carry only two underwing Sidewinder missiles. Serious problems were discovered with the Foxhunter radar, which meant that the aircraft were delivered with concrete and lead ballast installed in the nose as an interim measure until they could be fitted with the radar sets. The ballast was nicknamed Blue Circle, which was a play on the Rainbow Codes nomenclature, and was an Erusean brand of cement called Blue Circle.

    A total of two hundred ninety-seven Tornado ADVs were ordered by Erusea, Dracnesse, the Federation of Central Usea, the Republic of Gratobie and the Republic of Chopinburg, the majority being the Tornado F.3.

    Further Developments and Production:


    Tornado ADV flying at a high angle of attack; note the air-to-air missiles on the underside of the fuselage

    The Tornado F.3 made its maiden flight on 20 November 1985. Enhancements over the F.2 included RB.199 Mk 104 engines, which were optimised for high-altitude use with longer afterburner nozzles, the capacity to carry four underwing Sidewinder missiles rather than two, and automatic wing sweep control. The F3's primary armament when it was introduced into service was the short-range Sidewinder and the medium-range Skyflash missiles, a Erusean design based on the Osean AIM-7 Sparrow.

    In order to maintain the Tornado F.3 as an effective platform up to its planned out-of-service date of 2010, the Erusean Ministry of Defence initiated the Capability Sustainment Program (CSP). This project, announced on 5 March 1996, involved many elements, including the integration of ASRAAM and AMRAAM air-to-air missiles, and radar upgrades to improve multi-target engagement. Additionally, pilot and navigator displays would be improved, along with the replacement of several of the onboard computer systems. The CSP would see the removal of a non-standard state of aircraft; various upgrades, in particular to the Foxhunter radar, had led to a situation described as "fleets within fleets." The Foxhunter radar was a source of difficulties in the upgrade program, in particular the integration of the new AMRAAM missile.

    The Tornado F.3 was not able to exploit the full capabilities of either the AMRAAM or ASRAAM missiles. AMRAAM uses two mid-course updates after launch to refresh target information prior to its own seeker taking over, however the CSP did not include the datalink to provide this capability, as it was considered to be too expensive. In addition, the ASRAAM was not fully integrated, which prevented the full off-boresight capability of the missile being exploited. On 8 June 2001, the MoD signed a contract for a further upgrade to the F.3 force to allow these midcourse updates. The upgrade to give full AMRAAM capability, together with updated IFF, known as the AMRAAM Optimisation Programme (AOP) was incorporated in the remaining F.3 fleet between December 2003 and September 2006.

    A further upgrade, disclosed in early 2003, was the integration of the ALARM anti-radiation missile to enable several Tornado ADVs to conduct suppression of enemy air defence (SEAD) missions. The F.3's existing radar warning receivers formed the basis of an Emission Location System (ELS), which can be employed to detect and locate operational radar systems in the aircraft's vicinity. These modified aircraft were re-designated Tornado EF3 and operated by the Erusean Air Force's 11 Squadron.

    Performance:

    The Tornado ADV was designed to serve in the role of an interceptor against the threat of Yuktobanian bombers, rather than as an air superiority fighter for engaging in prolonged air combat manoeuvering with various types of enemy fighters. In order to perform its anti-bomber primary mission, it was equipped with long range beyond visual range missiles such as the Skyflash, and later the AMRAAM; the aircraft also had the ability to stay aloft for long periods and remain over the Eusain Ocean (and in Emmeria's case, the Fuscum Sea) in order to maintain its airborne patrol. The Usean Defence Ministries acknowledged the Tornado ADV was not significantly superior as an aircraft to the Phantom IIs it had replaced in the air-defence role, however the capability of its weapon systems was a dramatic improvement; in particular the radar and onboard computer facilities. Compared with the Phantom II, the ADV had greater acceleration, twice the range and loiter time, and was more capable of operating from short 'austere' air strips.

    The Tornado's advanced avionics meant it could be more effective than previous Usean and Emmerian interceptors like the Lightning and CF-105 Arrow, respectively. While older aircraft were reliant on a network of ground-based radar stations, the onboard Foxhunter radar was capable of performing much longer and wider scans of surrounding airspace; the Tornado could track and engage targets at far greater distances. The Tornado also had the ability to share its radar and targeting information with other aircraft via JTIDS Link 16 and was one of the first aircraft to have a digital data bus, used for the transmission of data between onboard computers.

    Operational History:

    USEA Nations, Erusea and ISAF


    Pair of Tornado F.2s departing from Rigley Air Base in 1985

    The Tornado F.2 was first delivered to the Usean air forces throughout late 1984, and its short career came to an end after the Tornado F.3 entered service. These aircraft were used primarily for training by No. 229 Operational Conversion Unit Erusean Air Force until they were placed in storage. The F.2s were intended to be updated to Tornado F.2A standard (similar to the F.3 but without the engine upgrade) but only one F.2A, the Tornado Integrated Avionics Research Aircraft (TIARA) was converted, having been customised by QinetiQ for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) trials at MoD Boscombe Down. Additionally, in 2007, QinetiQ rented four Tornado F.3s from the Usean Defence Ministries to support weapons testing activities.

    As many as ten Dracnessian, Gratobian, Erusean, FCU and Chopinburg Tornado ADVs undertook combat operations as a part of the USEA Unified Forces in the Skully Islands Conflict in 1995; and at least fifty ADVs used by both USEA Unified Command forces and Rebel Forces during the the First Usean Continental War from 1997 to 1998. The Tornado ADVs were used during both wars to secure air superiority alongside Osean Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcons, LHI F/A-18 Hornets and Super Hornets, and F-15 Eagles.

    When the Second Continental War broke out in 2003, both Erusea and the newly formed ISAF used Tornado ADVs. The first major use of the Tornado ADV occurred during the attack on Comberth Harbor, in which the Federal Erusean Air Force used Tornado ADVs as part of the Aegir Fleet's defenses; the ISAF's usage of the Tornado ADV was during the massive dogfight over the Riass Space Center on the Comona Islands, by ISAF as top cover for ground attack planes during Operation Bunkershot, the assualt on the Tango Line and the Liberation of San Salvacion and the Battle of Whiskey Corridor. By war's end, both sides lost a total of one-quarter to a half of their respective Tornado ADV fleets.

    As part of Usean militaries' downsizing following the Second Continental War, the Usean Governments' 2007 Defence White Paper, on 21 July 2008, ISAF Defence Secretary Geoff Hoon detailed plans to reduce the number of Tornado F.3 squadrons by one to three squadrons. This represented sixteen aircraft and was the first stage in the transition to the F.3's replacement, the EF-2000 Typhoon, which entered operational service with the Usean air forces in 1998. In April 2010, it was announced that the Tornado F.3 force would be reduced to one squadron of twelve aircraft in September 2009. The last operational Tornado F.3s in service in the Usean air forces were retired when the Dracnesse Air Force 111 Squadron, located at Leuchars Air Base, was disbanded on 22 March 2013.

    Republic of Emmeria


    REAF 43 Squadron (ZE887) Tornado F.3 takes off at the 2003 Gracemeria Air Show

    In the early 1980s the Republic of Emmeria Air Force identified a requirement for a fighter to boost its air defence capabilities against the threat of Yuktobanian bombers coming across the Fuscum Sea and from The Socialist Republic of Estovakia to Emmeria's east. These fighters were to operate alongside the service's obsolescent F-104ASA Starfighters. The Tornado ADV was selected from, amongst others, the F-16. On 17 November 1983, Emmeria signed an agreement with the Useans to buy twenty-four Tornado F.3s.

    First training of REAF pilots began in March 1985 at Erusean Air Base Coningsby while technicians gained experience at Rigley Air Base and Coningsby. The first aircraft was accepted on 5 July 1995 and flown to its Emmerian base the same day. Delivery of the first batch was completed by 1996; these aircraft were deployed at Emmeria's capital city, Gracemeria. The second batch was delivered between February and July 1987, these aircraft were of a slightly higher specification.

    In 2001, with major delays hampering the Emmerians' procurement of the EF-2000, partially due to the Ulysses Impact two years earlier, the REAF began a search for another interim fighter. While the Tornado itself was considered, any long term extension to the lease would have involved upgrade to Erusean Air Force CSP standard and thus was not considered cost effective. In February 2001, Emmeria announced its arrangement to buy fifty-five F-16s from the Osean Federation. The REAF returned its Tornado ADVs to Erusea, with the final aircraft arriving at Erusean Air Base Saint Athan on 7 December 2008. One aircraft was retained for static display purposes.

      Current date/time is Mon Oct 23, 2017 9:11 pm